Carbonates & Sea Level Papers

This page lists some of the literature on the carbonate sedimentary record and how its sequence stratigraphic character varies in response to base level change, usually eustasy(click on "PDF-Adobe" icons to download pdf files of papers).

Assereto, Riccardo L., and C.G.St.C.Kendall, (l97l), Megapolygons in Ladinian limestones of Triassic of Southern Alps: evidence of deformation by penecontemperaneous desiccation and cementation: J. Sediment Petrol., v. 4l, p. 7l5-723.
[Markers of intertidal & supratidal depositional settings that match those of modern of UAE]

Bádenas, B., Aurell, M., Rodríguez-Tovar, and Pardo-Igúzquiza, E., (2003), sequence stratigraphy and bedding rhythms of an outer ramp limestone succession (Late Kimmeridgian, Northeast Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 161: 153-174.
[stratal analysis of planar bedding from outer ramp mud limestone succession. In outcrop four types of bedding plane differentiated based on morphology, beds grouped as bundles on basis of highest order bedding plane type. No explanation for subdividing bedding planes.]

Boss, S.K., Rasmussen, K.A., 1995, Misuse of Fisher plots as sea-level curves, Geology, v. 23, no. 3, p. 221-224.
[Holocene transgression used to argue carbonates unable to keep pace with sea level and so do not record accomodation/eustasy]
Boss, S.K., Rasmussen, K.A., 1995, Misuse of Fisher plots as sea-level curves, Geology, v. 23, no. 3, p. 221-224.Comment by Richard Diecchio & Reply.
[Holocene transgression used to argue carbonates unable to keep pace with sea level and so do not record accomodation/eustasy]

Caron, Vincent, Campbell S. Nelson, Peter J.J.Camp, (2003),Trangressive surfaces of erosion as sequence boundary markers in cool-water shelf carbonates, Sedimentary Geology xx (2003) xxx–xxx
[In outcrop transgressive surfaces of erosion are sharp lithologic surfaces. TSE often only sequence boundary in carbonates with physical surface, characterized by sediment starvation & burrowing. formation & preservation dominated by physical conditions of setting including wave base & accommodation].

Clari, P.A., Dela Pierre, F., and Martire, L., (1995), Discontinuities in carbonate successions: identification, interpretation and classification of some Italian examples. Sedimentary Geology, 100: 97-121.
[Very interesting paper describes & defines processes that form surfaces, with firmgrounds and hardgrounds responsible for most of initial surfaces. Cites many carbonate examples. So many new terms introduced that paper loses overall clarity; plenty already in use in literature, like bedding plane, could have been applied.]

D'Argenio, Bruno, Vittoria Ferreri, Arturo Raspini, Sabrina Amodio, and Francesco P. Buonocunto, (1999), Cyclostratigraphy of a carbonate platform as a tool for high-precision correlation, Tectonophysics 315 357–384
[Masterful and successful matching of carbonate cycles accross southern Italy].

D'Argenio, B., A. G. Fischer, G. M. Richter, G. Longo, N. Pelosi, F. Molisso and M. L. Duarte Morais, (1998), Orbital cyclicity in the Eocene of Angola: visual and image-time-series analysis compared, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 160, Issues 1-2, Pages 147-161
[Brings statistical analysis to bear on developing field of extracting signal from noise.]

D'Argenio, Bruno, Vittoria Ferreri, Sabrina Amodio and Nicola Pelosi, (1997), Hierarchy of high-frequency orbital cycles in Cretaceous carbonate platform strata, Sedimentary Geology, Volume 113, Issues 3-4,Pages 169-193
[Using recognition the Malenkovitch cycles are probably expressed in the geology]

Drummond, C.N., and Wilkinson, B.H., 1993, Aperiodic accumulation of cyclic peritidal carbonate, Geology, v. 21, p.1023-1026.
[Tabulation of thickness data for carbonates used to suggest that an average depositional period from the mean cycle thickness cannot be derived, or used as proxy for past sea level oscillation frequency].

Drummond, C.N., Wilkinson, B.H., (1994), Aperiodic accumlation of cyclic peritidal carbonate:Forum Comment by Osleger, D. with Reply, Geology, v. 22, p. 479.
[Establishes need to separate interpretation as a matter of opinion from geologic fact].

Fischer, A. G., 1964, The Lofer cyclothems of the Alpine Triassic: Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 169, p. 107–149.
[First often cited attempt to extract a high frequency signal of sea level variation tied to a general low frequency subsidence curve from a section of cyclic carbonates].

Franseen, Evan K., Robert H. Goldstein, and Mark R. Farr (1998), Quantitative Controls on Location and Architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper Miocene, Cabo De Gata Region, SE Spain; Journal Of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 68, No. 2,P. 283–298
[Size of sea level variation or subsidence leave seperate signal depending on slope?].

Goldhammer, R. K., Dunn, P. A., and Hardie, L. A., 1990, Depositional cycles, composite sea-level changes, cycle stacking patterns, and the hierarchy of stratigraphic forcing: Examples from Alpine Triassic platform carbonates: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 102, p. 535–562.
[Landmark paper on the use of the character of cycles to determine their origins?].

Handford, R., and Loucks, R. G. 1993, carbonate depositional sequences and systems tracts responses of carbonate platforms to relative sea-level change, in Loucks, R, G. and Sarg, Rick, eds., carbonate sequence stratigraphy: recent advances and applications: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 57, p. 3-41.
[All you wanted to know about carbonate system tracts and were afraid to ask?].


Hillgartner, Heiko (1998), Discontinuity surfaces on a Shallow-Marine carbonate Platform (Berriasian, Valanginian, France and Switzerland), Journal of Sedimentary Research, Section B: stratigraphy and Global Studies, Vol. 68, No. 6, Pages 1093-1108
[surfaces in carbonates shown to have great significance most being the product of large changes in depositional setting induced by base level change.]
James, Noel P., David A. Feary, Christian Betzler, Yvonne Bone, Ann E. Holbourn, Qianyu Li, Hideaki Machiyama, J.A.Toni Simo,7 and Finn Surlyk, (2004), Origin Of Late Pleistocene Bryozoan Reef Mounds; Great Australian Bight, Journal Of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 74, No. 1, P. 20–48.
[Lowstand and the cool waters off Australia were the setting the growth of these hetergenous build ups with nutrient coming from the landmass and currents]..
Kendall, C.G.St.C., and W. Schlager, (l98l), carbonates and relative changes in sea level: Marine Geology v. 44, p. l8l-2l2. l980
[A very complete summary of how carbonates respond to base level change, setting the stage for the current interest in carbonates and their response to setting].

Kendall, Christopher G. St.C., Bruce Bowen, Abdulrahman Alsharhan, Dae-Kyo Cheong and David Stoudt, (1991), eustatic controls on carbonate facies in reservoirs, and seals associated with Mesozoic hydrocarbon fields of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Geology, v.102, p215- 238
[Tracks how reservoir quality is a function of depostional setting and high stand positions favour the simplistic model of better reservoirs being the grainier].

Lehmann, Christopher, David A. Osleger, and Isabel P. Montanez, (1998), Controls On Cyclostratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous carbonates and evaporites,Cupido and Coahuila Platforms, Northeastern Mexico, Controls on Cyclostratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous carbonates and evaporites,Cupido and Coahuila Platforms, Northeastern Mexico, Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 68, No. 6, P. 1109–1130
[Eclectic character of the cycles is driven by a mix of Milankovitch climatic variations, local variability in events and the geomorphic configuration of the shelf & its margin].


Lukasik, Jeff J., and Noel P. James, (2003), Deepening-Upward Subtidal cycles, Murray basin, South Australia, Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 73, No. 5, P. 653–671
[Mix of ichnology & faunal diversity are used to determine deepening upward cycles, depositional setting & correlate lithofacies and chronostratigraphic surfaces.].

Mitchum Jr., Robert M., Miguel A. Uliana, (1985), Seismic stratigraphy of carbonate depositional sequences, Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous, Neuquen basin, Argentina: Seismic stratigraphy: An Integrated Approach to Hydrocarbon Exploration, Memoir 39, 255-274
[Mix of seismic and well date are used to build a sequence stratigraphic model of the depositional setting, correlating lithofacies and chronostratigraphic surfaces.].

Munnecke, Axel, and Hildegard Westphal (2003), Shallow-water aragonite recorded in bundles of limestone–marl alternations—the Upper Jurassic of SW Germany, Sedimentary Geology
[cycles interpreted to reflect high stand aragonite from shelf and lowstand calcite from open marine settings during low stand.]

Naish, Tim, and Peter J.J. Kamp (1997), Foraminiferal depth palaeoecology of Late Pliocene shelf sequences and systems tracts, Wanganui basin, New Zealand, Sedimentary Geology 110, 237-255
[Faunal diversity and ichnologic data used to determine deepening upward cycles.]

Pittet, Bernard, Andre Strasser and Emanuela Mattioli (2000), depositional sequences in Deep-Shelf Environments: A Response to Sea-Level Changes and Shallow-Platform carbonate Productivity (Oxfordian, Germany and Spain), Journal of Sedimentary Research, Section B: stratigraphy and Global Studies Vol. 70 No. 2. Pages 392-407
[cycles of marl & lst reflect high frequency changes in sea level in a mixed setting with some sediment from nearby shelf and some open marine basin settings.].

Rankey, Eugene, C., Kenneth R. Walker and Krishnan Srinivasan, (1994), Gradual Establishment of Iapetan "Passive" Margin Sedimentation: Stratigraphic Consequences of Cambrian Episodic Tectonism and eustasy, Southern Appalachians, Journal of Sedimentary Research v b 64, n. 3, p. 298-310
[Eclectic responses of carbonate from shoaling upward cycles to those that deepen are thought to reflect irregular subsidence behaviour of the continental margin].

Read J. Fred, (1985), carbonate Platform Facies Models, American Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 1-21.
[Every facies model in carbonate platforms listed for your enjoyment & consideration.]

Read, J. F., Andrew D. Horbury (1993), eustatic and Tectonic Controls on porosity Evolution Beneath sequence-Bounding Unconformities and parasequence Disconformities on carbonate Platforms: Chapter 11: Diagenesis, sequence stratigraphy, and Changes in relative sea level Pub. SG 36:Studies in Geology Diagenesis and basin Development p. 155 - 197
[Recognition that sea level fall & exposure effect diagenetic response of carbonates].

Read, J.F., and Goldhammer, R.K., 1988, Use of Fischer plots to define third-order sea-level curves in Ordovician peritidal cyclic carbonates, Appalachians. Geology, v. 16, p. 895-899.
[carbonate cycles analysed in terms of a subsidence model uniform fill to sea level].

Reid, S. K., and S. L. Dorobek, (1993), sequence stratigraphy and Evolution of a progradational, Foreland carbonate Ramp, Lower Mississippian Mission Canyon formation and Stratigraphic Equivalents, Montana and Idaho, In carbonate sequence stratigraphy, Robert G. Loucks and J. Frederick Sarg, Editors, AAPG Memoir 57, P327 353.
[Interpretation of complex foreland basin using principles of sequence stratigraphy.]

Scaturo D.M., Strobel J.S., Kendall C.G.G.St.C., Wendte J.C., Biswas G., Bezdek J., and Cannon R., (1989), Judy Creek: a case study of a two dimensional sediment deposition simulation: in J.L. Wilson, P. Crevello and F. Read, Controls on carbonate Platform and basin Development, SEPM Spec Pub 44, p 64- 76
[Simulation of base level control on carbonate build up & productivity with diagrams].

Spence, Guy H., and Maurice E. Tucker, (1999), Modeling carbonate Microfacies in the Context of High-Frequency Dynamic Relative Sea-Level and Environmental Changes, Journal of Sedimentary Research , Vol. 69, No. 4, , P. 947–961
[Recognition that base level changes are responsible for key strata surfaces seen in carbonate cycles though these are often subtle while assemblages of microfacies better define the cycles that are dependent on bathymetry].

Smith, L. B., Al-Tawil, A., Read, J. F., (2001), High-resolution sequence stratigraphic setting of Mississippian eolianites, Appalachian and Illinois basins; Abegg, F. E. (editor), Harris, Paul M. (editor), Loope, David B. (editor), Modern and ancient carbonate eolianites; sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, and diagenesis, Special Publication - Society for Sedimentary Geology, 71, p. 167-181
[carbonate eolianites identified in these shoaling upward cycles that are mapped using principles of sequence stratigraphy ].

Smith, L. B., and Read, J. F., 1999, Application of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy to tidally influenced Upper Mississippian carbonates, Illinois basin, in: Harris, P. M. et al., eds., Advances in carbonate sequence stratigraphy: application to reservoirs, outcrops, and models: SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication 63 p.
[Principles of sequence stratigraphy used to map & correlate carbonate cycles].

Smith, L. B., and Read, J. F., 2000, Rapid onset of late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana, evidence from upper Mississippian strata of the midcontinent, United States in: Geology, v. 28, p. 279-282
[Uses the inferrred lowstand event at the start of glaciation to interpret incised valleys and termination of caronate production of the shallow shelf sea of the Mississippean].

Soreghan, G. S., and Dickinson, W. R., 1994, Generic types of stratigraphic cycles controlled by eustasy: Geology, v. 22, p. 759–761.
[base level control on carbonate response from base-cutout up on the shelf, keep up, and catch up, give up & catch down; putting my kind of terminology to work].

Soreghan, G. S., and Dickinson, W. R., 1995, Generic types of stratigraphic cycles controlled by eustasy: Forum: Comment by Wilkinson, B. H., Frank, T. D., and Klein, R. T., with Reply: Geology, v. 23, p. 573.
[Discussion demonstrates that carbonate response to relative sea level change is not a simple affair and that we all have our own assumptions to make rocks sing for us].

Westphal, Hildegard, and A. Munnecke, (2003), limestone-marl alternations: A warm-water phenomenon? Geology; v. 31; no. 3; p. 263–266
[Recognition that aragonite/calcite beat is probably tracking alternations in climate].

Westphal, Hildegard, Florian Boehm, and Stefan Bornholdt (2004), Orbital frequencies in the carbonate sedimentary record: distorted by diagenesis? Facies, 50:3–11
[Neat consideration of the way that carbonate cycles might be modified by diagenesis so sequence stratigraphic surfaces may be modulated by these events].

Whalen, Michael T., Jed Day, Gregor P. Eberli, and Peter W. Homewood, (2002), microbial carbonates as indicators of environmental change and biotic crises in carbonate systems: examples from the Late Devonian, Alberta basin, Canada; Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology v 8, p127-151
[Suprising match of microbial fauna to that of the Canning basin Devonian Margin.]
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