Holocene Carbonates Papers

Sequence Stratigraphy On-Line Papers (Holocene)

Selected Papers of Holocene Depositional Systems Relative to Carbonate Buildups (With annotated comments).

With the exception of the Dill et al, 1990 Guide book to Lee Socking Island the papers are part of a collection compiled and reviewed by:

Don McNeil - University of Miami

Note: Several of the papers are cross-referenced with respect to depositional setting.
Please click on link to view paper.

Platforms and Platform Margin Accumulations
Platform Interior Facies on Holocene Platforms
Isolated Platforms, Banks, Atolls

Rimmed Shelves
Inner Shelf Mounds
Shelf-Lagoon Reefs and Sediments

Non-Rimmed Shelves
Tropical Ramps

Platforms and Platform Margin accumulations (top)

Ball, M.M. 1967. Carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 37, p. 556-591.
[A classic study describing Holocene bank margin and bank interior sand bodies from the Bahamas, as well as shelf margin and shelf interior sand deposits from the Florida shelf. Includes information on sand body attributes, depositional orientation relative to prevailing winds and currents, and some information on thickness and rate of accumulation.]

Dill, R.F., Kendall C. G. St.C. and Shinn, G. 1990. Guidebook to the Marine Geology and Tropical Environments of Lee Stocking Island, the South East Exumas, Bahamas, a 190 page guidebook privately assembled & distributed to field trips for students and other interested parties.
[This guidebook largely represents the enthusiastic observations of Robert Dill & emphases the results of his work to find and describe the giant subtidal Stromatolites he found and showed the other two authors, & many other geologists in the vicinity of Lee Socking Island.]


Dominguez, L.L., and Mullins, H., 1988. Cat Island platform, Bahamas: an incipiently drowned Holocene carbonate shelf. Sedimentology, v. 35, p. 805-819.
[ A high-resolution seismic and sediment survey to document the drowned state of a part of a small carbonate bank in the Bahamas. Study proposes that rapid flooding during Holocene sea level rise provided a setting that could not keep up with the sea level rise. The sediment cover is relict and has limited reef development due to the relatively (20-30 m) deep water. Good example of heterogeneity in platform accumulation and spatial "drowning" of a small carbonate platform.]


Hine, A.C., 1983. Relict sand bodies and bedforms of the northern Bahamas- evidence of extensive early Holocene sand transport. In, Coated Grains, T.M., Peryt, ed., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 116-131.
[An aerial and ground reconnaissance study of platform margin and platform interior sand bodies related to early transgression of a large carbonate platform. Study documents the relict nature of large sand sheets that were deposited early in the platform flooding and are now relatively inactive. Good data set on size attributes of carbonate sand bodies.]


Hine, A.C., and Steinmetz, J.C., 1984. Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas - A partially drowned carbonate platform. Marine Geology, v. 59, p. 135-164.
[ Seismic, sediment, ground observation, and satellite imagery combined to assess Holocene deposition on a isolated platform and the impact of offbank sediment transport related to current and storm processes. Study indicates subdued margin development and relatively low sediment accumulation along the margin and interior of the platform, respectively. The depth of the platform suggests that it was flooded during a period of rapid sea level rise (~8-10 ka). This rapid flooding has produced conditions that contribute to incipient drowning through low sediment production by typical shallow-water organisms, off-bank transport of sediment that is produced in situ, as well as possible environmental (coldwater) stresses.]


Illing, L.V., 1954. Bahaman calcareous sands. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bull., v. 38, p. 1-95.
[A very valuable, but somewhat dated study of the sediment types and their distribution within the large platforms of the Bahamas. Study details the grain types and thus the basic facies types that comprise the different sand bodies on the margins and on the interior parts of the platform. Study recognizes the influence of tidal-driven circulation on formation of platform-margin sand bodies and their greater rate of accumulation.]


Logan, A., 1988. Holocene reefs of Bermuda. Sedimenta XI, University of Miami, 63 pp.
[ A relatively recent overview of the reefs that form the Bermuda platform, including the platform margin reefs, lagoonal reefs, and inshore reefs. This study summarizes the major reef facies, the sediment types in these facies, as well as a comparison to the reef styles found in the Caribbean-West Indian reef systems.]

Logan, A., 1988. The reefs and lagoons of Cayman Brac and Little Cayman. In, The Biogeography and Ecology of the Cayman Islands., D.R. Stoddart, M. Brunt, and J.E. Davies, eds., W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
[An overview of reef buildups and lagoonal sedimentation that combine to form the Holocene sedimentary cover on several of the small platforms that comprise the Cayman islands. Good example of reef facies, distribution, geometry, and accumulation style.]

Newell, N.D. and Rigby, J.K., 1957. Geological studies in the Great Bahama Bank. In, Regional Aspects of carbonate Sedimentation, R.J. Le Blanc and J.G. Breeding, eds., Spec. Pub. Soc. Econ. Paleont. Miner. No 5, p. 15-79.
[An early study on the facies relationships and processes of a large carbonate platform. Especially important is the detailed study of the platform margin reefs. This study provides excellent documentation of a bank-margin reef system.]

Purdy, E.G., 1963, Recent calcium carbonate facies of the Great Bahama Bank. 1. Petrography and reaction groups. Journal of Geology, v. 71, p. 334-355.  

Purdy, E.G., 1963, Recent calcium carbonate facies of the Great Bahama Bank. 2. Sedimentary facies. Journal of Geology, v. 71, p. 472-497.
[ Part 1 and Part 2 of Purdy's work combine to provide a detailed sedimentary characterization of bank top carbonate sedimentation. Excellent example of scale attributes to platform margin sands and bank interior deposits.]


Roberts, H.H., Aharon, P., and Phipps, C.V., 1988. Morphology and sedimentology of Halimeda bioherms from the eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Coral Reefs, v. 6, p. 161-172.
[ This study serves to characterize the skeletal sand buildups on a carbonate bank positioned in front of the Sunda Shelf. These buildups are dominated by the green alga Halimeda. Some attribute information is available from the seismic data shown in this paper, the oceanographic processes are a primary focus in determining the controls on deposition of the Halimeda bioherms.]

Roberts, H.H., and Murray, S.P., 1984. Developing carbonate platforms: southern Gulf of Suez, Northern Red Sea. Marine Geology, v. 59, p. 165-185.
[A facies and morphological characterization of several small carbonate platforms that occur in between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. The active regional tectonism has provided the foundation for these platforms. The study provides some detailed attribute and facies information as well as oceanographic processes that influence carbonate sedimentation. Good model for facies distribution on small platforms and buildups.]

Wanless, H.R., Tedesco, L.P., Rossinsky, V.J., and Dravis, J.J., 1989. carbonate environments and sequences of Caicos platform, with an introductory evaluation of South Florida. 28th Intl. Geol. Congress, Field Trip Guidebook, T374, p. 1-75.
[A relatively up-to-date overview of the Caicos platform, a medium-size platform system in a arid setting with strong oceanographic influences. This guidebook details the Holocene sedimentary facies across the platform from intertidal processes near the islands on the northern rim, to more open marine, tidally-influenced ooid sand accumulations on the central and southern side. A good source of information on facies relationships, spatial scale, and intra-platform facies variations.]


Platform Interior Facies on Holocene Platforms (top)

Ball, M.M. 1967. carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 37, p. 556-591.
[See description above.]

Mark R. Boardman, Cindy Carney, (1991) Origin and accumulation of Lime Mud in Ooid Tidal Channels, Bahamas, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 61 No. 5. Pages 661-680
[Lime mud ascribed to mix of human intervention, huricane erosion and accumulation]

Gischler, E., 1994. Sedimentation on three Caribbean atolls: Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef and Turneffe Islands, Belize. Facies, v. 31, p. 243-254.
[ One of three publications (see following two descriptions) that provide a detailed characterization of sedimentation on several isolated, offshore platforms in the western Caribbean. Combined, these three studies provide both spatial detail with respect too depositional and sediment facies, as well as some information on the rate of Holocene sediment accumulation.]


Gischler, E., and Hudson, J.H., 1998. Holocene development of three isolated carbonate platforms, Belize, Central America. Marine Geology, v. 144, p. 333-347.
[ See above reference. This study provides age-dating information on platform margin accumulation rate.]


Gischler, E., and Lomando, A.J., 1999. Recent sedimentary facies of isolated carbonate platforms, Belize-Yucatan system, Central America. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 69, p. 747-763.
[ Excellent illustration of facies types and their distribution on several isolated carbonate platforms. Useful information of facies zonation, size attributes, and relative thickness.]

Hine, A.C., Hallock, P., Harris, M.W., Mullins, H.T., Belknap, D.F., and Jaap, W.C., 1988. Halimeda bioherms along an open seaway: Miskito Channel, Nicaraguan Rise, SW Caribbean Sea. Coral Reefs, v. 6, p. 173-178.
[ Seismic reflection-based study of Halimeda buildups on the Nicaraguan Rise. Publication includes several high-resolution seismic profiles to document position and size of the buildups relative to the adjacent bank margin. Good example of bank margin buildups.]


Lloyd, R.M., Perkins, RD, and Kerr, S.D., 1987. Beach and shoreface ooid deposition on shallow interior banks, Turks and Caicos Island, British West Indies. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 57, p. 976-982.
[ Holocene non-skeletal sand deposits that are forming on the inner-side of the (Pleistocene) islands that occur along the northern side of the Caicos Platform. Good example of a carbonate sand buildup away from the platform margin.]

Milliman, J.D., 1967. Carbonate sedimentation on Hogsty reef - A Bahamian atoll. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 37, p. 658-678.
[ Facies characterization of a small atoll-type feature in the southern Bahamas with emphasis on the influence of wind and currents on the formation of a reefal rim. A Well documented sediment characterization for the atoll rim, back reef rim, lagoon, and patch reef facies. No accumulation data.]

Newell, N.D., Purdy, E.G., and Imbrie, J., 1960, Bahamian oolitic sand. Journal Geology, v. 68, p. 481-497.
[ A study focused on the occurrence, formatation, and distribution of bank-margin ooid sand deposits on a large carbonate platform margin. Useful information on size and orientation of marginal sand deposits.]


Phipps, C., and Robert, H.H., 1988. Seismic characteristics and accretion history of Halimeda bioherms on Kalukalukuang Bank, eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Coral Reefs, v. 6, p. 149-159.
[ Seismic study of K-Bank limestone platform some 50 km east of the Sunda Shelf margin. This study documents the surficial morphology and internal geometry of Halimeda bioherms. Study provides some data on buildup attribute, facies composition, and internal geometry.]


Rankey, Eugene C. (2002), Spatial Patterns of Sediment accumulation on a Holocene Carbonate Tidal Flat, Northwest Andros Island, Bahamas, Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 72, No. 5, Pages 591-601
[Study documents the surficial morphology and internal geometry of carbonate tidal flat with facies composition, and internal geometry and their response to processes.]

Wanless, H.R., Tedesco, L.P., Rossinsky, V.J., and Dravis, J.J., 1989. Carbonate environments and sequences of Caicos platform, with an introductory evaluation of South Florida. 28th Intl. Geol. Congress, Field Trip Guidebook, T374, p. 1-75.
[See description above.]


Isolated Platforms, Banks, Atolls (top)

Milliman, J.D., 1967. Carbonate sedimentation on Hogsty reef - A Bahamian atoll. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 37, p. 658-678.
[See description above.]

Purdy, E.G., and Bertram, G.T., 1993. Carbonate concepts from the Maldives, Indian Ocean. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology No. 34. Tulsa, OK, 56 pp.
[A comprehensive study on the numerous isolated platforms and atolls that form the Maldives. This report includes detailed aerial and satellite photographs that provide good scale and attribute information on the Holocene (surficial) deposition of these reef buildups. Useful model for intra-platform/atoll buildups.]


Triffleman, N.J., Hallock, P., and Hine, A.C., 1992. Morphology, sediments, and depositional environments of a partially drowned carbonate platform: Serranilla Bank-southwest Caribbean Sea. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 62, p. 591-606.
[Seismic study with some ground-truth of a small carbonate bank on the Nicaraguan Rise shelf system. The bank is submerged, and is not producing sediment enough to keep up with the rise of Holocene sea level. The Holocene sediments consist of predominantly skeletal sand but the unit is relatively thin (up to 8 m) and coarse-grained. Strong currents winnow the mud away (off bank). Example of isolated banks and small platforms that are partially drowned and dominated by erosion instead of shallow-water carbonate deposition.

Rimmed Shelves

Inner Shelf Mounds (top)

Bosence, D.W.J., Rowlands, R.J., and Quine, M.L., 1985. Sedimentology and budget of a Recent carbonate mound, Florida Keys. Sedimentology, v. 32, p. 317-343.
[ Detailed surficial and subsurface bio- and sediment-facies study of a biogenic mound or buildup on the inner part of the Florida shelf. Good example of facies transition from predominantly mud to coralgal sand/gravel during the Holocene transgression and the associated increase in water circulation. Study provides carbon-14 dates to assess rate information. Good spatial facies map and aerial photographs for scale attributes. Study can be grouped with Turmel and Swanson (1976) results, see below. ]


Enos, P., 1977. Holocene sediment accumulations of the South Florida shelf margin. In, Quaternary Sedimentation in South Florida. P. Enos and R.D. Perkins, eds., Mem. Geological Soc. America No. 147, p. 1-130.
[ A comprehensive mapping and coring effort that documents the sediments, depositional facies, and extent of the carbonate deposits that comprise the Florida shelf. Detailed core information, some bottom and sub-bottom profiling data, excellent map illustrations on the thickness and scale of Holocene facies.]

Enos, P., and Perkins, R.D., 1979. Evolution of Florida Bay from island stratigraphy. Bull. Geol. Soc. of America, v. 90, p. 59-83.
[ A core-based study that documents the development of lagoonal, mud-dominated buildups on the Florida shelf. Modern example of mud mound deposition in a restricted setting.]

Turmel, R.J., and Swanson, R.G., 1976. The development of Rodriquez Bank, a Holocene mudbank in the Florida reef tract. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 46, p. 497-518.
[ A detailed surface and subsurface characterization of a reef mound on the inner part of the Florida Shelf. Useful information on upward facies evolution and rate of change based on carbon-14 dating. Combine with Bosence (1985) study described above.]

Wanless, H.R., and Tagett, M.G., 1989. Origin, growth and evolution of carbonate mudbanks in Florida Bay. Bull. Marine Science, v. 44, p. 454-489.
[ A thorough core-based documentation of the different mudbank types in the Florida Bay lagoon. Study also includes useful aerial documentation of modern mudbank features to express size attributes. Good example of lagoon sedimentation in response to the Holocene sea level transgression.]


Wanless, H.R., Cottrell, D.J., Tagett, M.G., Tedesco, L.P., and Warzeski, E.R., 1995. Origin and growth of carbonate banks in south Florida. In, carbonate Mud Mounds, C.L.V. Monty, D.W.J. Bosence, P.H. Bridges, and B.R. Pratt, eds., Spec. Pub. Inter. Assoc. of Sedimentologists No. 23, p. 439-473.
[ A regional study of several different types of mud-dominated deposits on the south Florida shelf. Includes banks from both the restricted and tidal dominated parts of the shelf. Excellent data compilation on Holocene accumulation rate for both lagoon and tidal-dominated setting.]


Shelf-Lagoon Reefs and Sediments (top)

Adey, W.H., and Burke, R., 1977. Holocene bioherms of the Lesser Antilles- geologic control of development. In, Reefs and Related Carbonates- Ecology and Sedimentology, S.H. Frost, M.P. Weiss, and J.B. Saunders, eds., Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Studies in Geology No. 4, p. 67-8.
[ This study provides valuable information on coral reef and algal accumulation rates in tropical settings (Caribbean) and how these biohermal deposits contribute to carbonate platform margin and rim development. Useful overview of the potential for reefs to build vertically as well as laterally in tectonically active areas.]

Choi, D.R., and R.N. Ginsburg, 1982, Foundations of Quaternary reefs in the southernmost Belize Lagoon, British Honduras: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bulletin, v. 93, p. 116-126.

Choi, D.R., and C.W. Holmes, 1982, Foundations of Quaternary reefs in south-central Belize Lagoon, Central America: Amer. .Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bulletin, v. 66, p. 2663-2671.
[These two Choi studies provide information that shows the control of precursor topography on the development of Holocene reefs. Especially important is that the geometry of Holocene buildups are directly influenced by either earlier sedimentary deposition (in this case fluvial siliciclastics) or by karstic modification. Paper includes useful information of scale of reef deposits and their shape. Can combine with more recent data to assess rate of accumulation.]


Davies, P.J. and Marshall, J.F., 1985. Halimeda bioherms-low energy reefs, northern Great Barrier Reef. Proc. 5th Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, v. 5, p. 1-7.
[Additional example of shelf-lagoon buildups. In this example Halimeda bioherms form large and spatially extensive buildups behind (1-2 km) the reef-rimmed shelf of the Great Barrier Reef. Seismic and bathymetric profiles provide a valuable data set on morphology and scale of these shelf buildups. Paper provides age information and vertical accumulation rates from several of the buildups.]


Enos, P., 1977. Holocene sediment accumulations of the South Florida shelf margin. In, Quaternary Sedimentation in South Florida. P. Enos and R.D. Perkins, eds., Mem. Geological Soc. America No. 147, p. 1-130.
[ See description above.]

Esker, D., Eberli, G.P., and McNeill, D.F., 1998. The structural and sedimentological controls on the reoccupation of Quaternary incised valleys, Belize southern lagoon. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bulletin, v. 82, p. 2075-2109.
[ Similar to the Choi publications, this paper takes a more regional view of the reefal and Halimeda buildups within the Belize lagoon. information on the size, thickness, and spatial relationship of reef highs and adjacent siliciclastic lows is available here.]


Marshall, J.F. and Davies, P.J., 1982. Internal structure and Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, v. 1, p. 21-28.
[ A core-based study on a shelf reef buildup provides detailed facies and accumulation rate information for a small (6 km wide), isolated reef platform within the shelf lagoon of the Great Barrier Reef. Good example of reef development during rising sea level and the transition from a catch-up style of deposition to a leeward progradational phase.]


Phipps, C.V., Davies, P.J., and Hopley, D., 1985. The morphology of Halimeda banks behind the Great Barrier Reef east of Cooktown, Queensland. Proc. 5th Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, v. 5, p. 27-30.
[ A submersible-based characterization of biofacies and morphology of Halimeda buildups from the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Documentation of sediment facies on the bank tops and sediment accumulation on the flanks of the buildups.]


Phipps, C., and Robert, H.H., 1988. Seismic characteristics and accretion history of Halimeda bioherms on Kalukalukuang Bank, eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Coral Reefs, v. 6, p. 149-159.
[ See description above.]


Purdy, E.G., 1974, Karst-determined facies patterns in British Honduras: Holocene carbonate sedimentation model: Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bulletin, v. 58, p. 825-855.
[ A fine example of how the distribution of Holocene sediment types and depositional facies is correlated with bathymetry as a result of differences in water circulation arising form precursor relief associated with karstification. Depositional model stressing the importance of existing relief during transgression of a shelf/platform system. See related studies on Belize lagoon model for information on reef geometries, distribution, and depositional facies.]


Pusey, W.C., 1975. Holocene carbonate sedimentation on northern Belize shelf. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Studies in Geology No. 2, p. 131-233.
[ A study of the distribution of Holocene sedimentary facies and sediment accumulation on a semi-restricted shelf lagoon and shelf margin. Detailed surface mapping of grain type and textural characteristics combined with subsurface representation of these facies-types. Study provides good constraints on the size of the different lithofacies. Recent age-dating can provide accumulation rate information.]


Scoffin, T.P., and Tudhope, A.W., 1985. Sedimentary environments of the central region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Coral Reefs, v. 4, p. 81-93.
[ A well-documented example of shelf margin, shelf edge, and forereef sedimentary facies along a barrier reef system. Especially useful is the facies mapping of shallow buildups that are separated by deeper channels. Also well documented are the shelf edge slope lithofacies and the leeward reef talus wedge.]


Non-Rimmed Shelves (top)

Folk, R.L., and Robles, R., 1964. Carbonate sands of Isla Perez, Alacran Reef complex, Yucatan. Journal of Geology, v. 72, p. 255-292.
[ A classic study of carbonate grain types and lithofacies within a isolated reef buildup on the Yucatan shelf. Although somewhat dated, the facies distribution is useful for showing windward-leeward zonation in an isolated reefal buildup. Combined with more recent age dating from cores, can provide a useful reef model.]


Glaser, K.S., and Droxler, A.W., 1991. High production and highstand shedding from deeply submerged carbonate banks, northern Nicaragua Rise. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 61, p. 128-142.
[ This study documents the carbonate sediment production from deep-water banks on the Nicaraguan Rise. It is useful to demonstrate that these deeper banks can generate significant sediment, but that much of the sediment is transported offbank to the adjacent flank and basin.]

Hine, A.C., Hallock, P., Harris, M.W., Mullins, H.T., Belknap, D.F., and Jaap, W.C., 1988. Halimeda bioherms along an open seaway: Miskito Channel, Nicaraguan Rise, SW Caribbean Sea. Coral Reefs, v. 6, p. 173-178.
[ See description above.]


Logan, B.W., Harding, J.L., Ahr, W.M., Williams, J.D., and Snead, R.G., 1969. carbonate sediments and reefs, Yucatan Shelf, Mexico. Mem. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists No.11, 198 pp.
[ A comprehensive, regional study dealing with carbonate open-shelf/ramp facies. Good example of reefal buildups within an open-shelf setting. When combined with other core and surface information these data provide good spatial information for shelf depositional models. See Hoskins (1963); Folk and Robles (1964); Macintyre et al. (1977) for related information.]


Macintyre, I.G., Burke, R.B. and Stuckenrath, R., 1977. Thickest recorded Holocene reef section, Isla Pérez core hole, Alacran Reef, Mexico. Geology, v. 5, p. 749-754.
[ Core-based study that provides age dating of the reef deposits on the Yucatan shelf. Age-data provide well-constrained values for reef accumulation for the past 6-8 ka. Combine with Logan et al. (19690 for comprehensive facies model.]

Roberts, H.H., Phipps, C.V., and Effendi, L., 1987. Halimeda bioherms of the eastern Java Sea, Indonesia. Geology, v. 15, p. 371-374.
[ information on the distribution, morphology, and internal geometry of Halimeda bioherms. Study based mainly on seismic data to document thickness, although some core data is presented. Accumulation rate data is presented based on carbon-14 age dating of the top 3 m of a piston core. Combine with Phipps and Robert (1988) and Roberts et al. (1988) for a more comprehensive facies model.]

Shinn, E.A., Lidz, B.H., and Holmes, C.W., 1990. High-energy carbonate-sand accumulation, the Quicksands, southwest Florida Keys. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 60, p. 952-967.
[ Seismic-reflection based survey of tidally-dominated, bank margin skeletal sand shoals along the southern end of the west Florida ramp system. Good regional database on size of individual sand shoals as well as the complete belt of shoals. Although tidal dominated by north-south flow, shoals show westward accretion by the predominantly Halimeda sands. Useful example of upper ramp sand accumulation.]

Triffleman, N.J., Hallock, P., and Hine, A.C., 1992. Morphology, sediments, and depositional environments of a small carbonate platform: Serranilla Bank, Nicaraguan Rise- southwest Caribbean Sea. Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v. 62, p. 591-606.
[ See description above.]

Tropical Ramps (top)

Newton, C.R., Mullins, H.T., Gardulski, A.F., Hine, A.C., and Dix, G.R., 1987. Coral mounds on the west Florida slope: unanswered questions regarding the development of deep-water banks. Palaios, v. 4, p. 359-367.
[ An example of deep-water reef mounds (10-15 m relief) on the outer part of the west Florida ramp system. Although the core of these deposits is Pleistocene, modern deep-water coral and organisms cap these deposits.]

Purser, B.H., 1973. Sedimentation around bathymetric highs in the southern Persian Gulf. In, The Persian Gulf, B.H. Purser, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 157-177.
[ A compilation of examples of carbonate sedimentation around bathymetric highs in the southern Persian Gulf. The examples include basin center highs, intermediate highs, and coastal highs. The three-different types of bathymetric highs and their respective sediment facies are documented in this study. Facies range from fringing reefs, to coral-algal sands, to mud and muddy sands. Several examples are presented and are sufficiently detailed to provide information for facies models.]


Purser, B.H. (ed.), 1973. The Persian Gulf. Holocene carbonate sedimentation and diagenesis in a shallow epicontinental sea. Springer-Verlag, New York, 471 pp.
[ A comprehensive compilation of Holocene sedimentation on this shelf-ramp system, ranging from supratidal to deep-water (~40 m) shelf facies.]

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